Document Type : Scientific-research

Author

Associate Professor of Theology Department, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

This article explains the psychological conditions of moral responsibility with a descriptive-analytical method along with a brief comparison and analyzes Mulla Sadra's point of view in this regard and expresses its similarities with the views of some contemporary compatibilists. The conditions of moral responsibility can be divided into two categories: 1-cognitive conditions and 2-control conditions, the second category includes: 1-power and ability and 2-will and authority. In emphasizing the cognitive and control conditions of holding the subject responsible, Mulla Sadra uses both judicial and rational principles and religious texts such as the Qur'an and Hadith. By expressing the condition of mental maturity and health for the responsible agent, Mulla Sadra has emphasized the normative characteristics necessary for responsibility, and his theory is similar to the views of Frankfurt's "true self" and "normative competencies" such as Fischer and Wolff. Also, based on the principles of transcendental wisdom, it is necessary to talk about the level of having normative competences, based on which responsibility will also be a matter of importance and its scope, intensity and weakness will be different among people. Thus, the responsibility of humans is not the same, and every human being has a moral responsibility based on their level of existence and abilities. By distinguishing between heart and inner actions, Mullah Sadra does not hold a person responsible for the feelings and enthusiasm resulting from it, but he sees determination, effort, intention and intention worthy of blame and praise, punishment and reward. Thus, from his point of view, in addition to many external actions, the realm of human responsibility also includes some internal actions.

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