Document Type : Scientific-research


1 Faculty of the Institute of Islamic Sciences and Culture

2 Faculty of Shahid Beheshti University


Spirituality and rationality theory identifies the connection between rationality and spirituality as the only way to reduce human suffering. According to the theorist, modern rationality does not confirm traditional religion. Hence religion cannot play its historical role in reducing human suffering. Therefore, it should be replaced by spirituality. This theory is ultimately based on a combination of "non-realistic rationality" aiming to prove that spiritual beliefs are mysterious and reason-averting in nature and the "instrumental rationality" aiming to prove that spiritual beliefs are optimal for keeping mental., Both non-realistic rationality and instrumental rationality have been criticized by many critics.  However, the more important with non-realistic rationality are its implications which undermine its basic elements. The most important element of this theory, according to the theorist, is its aim of reducing human sufferings, while this goal cannot be achieved by non-realistic rationality. The orientation of non-realistic rationality toward spirituality opens the door to the superstitious beliefs.