عنوان مقاله [English]
The theory of velayate e faqih (Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist), as conceptualized by Imam Khomeini, has close affinities with Rashid Reza's theory of Islamic Caliphate regarding government and politics in the sense that both models are similar in their general structure and principles. They put emphasis on the role of the people and their vote and, at the same time, stress that the Islamic government should be based on religious principles and rules. Ijtihad (exegesis of divine law) and expediency are supposed to lead to the flexibility of religion and pave the way for the implementation of religious rule consistent with the realities of the time and place. Despite their similarity in theory, the concrete results and the social output of their related affiliates vary greatly. Examining the theoretical foundations of these two theories, it is made clear that the way religion and some of its characteristics including the function of religion, its immortality and comprehensiveness, as well as the origins of theology and anthropology are viewed, lead to such an approach to government and politics. However, differences in the way these issues are viewed by the Shiites and the Sunnis lead to important differences in their implementation. The Shiite approach is based on reason and narration and has a rich rational support, while the Sunni theology is more based on narration and jurisprudence. This difference has made the theory of Islamic Caliphate fail to achieve its goals in practice.