عنوان مقاله [English]
Hope is one of the most humane phenomena. Among the late philosophers, in particular with the analytic approach, there is a lot of effort to critique the traditional definition of hope. The approach to believing in it is sufficient or inadequate in the definition of hope, as well as the criterion of validity, or the so-called rationality of hope, is the main theme of these discussions. In this article, while briefly reviewing these definitions, we analyze the three main types of rationality of hope: rationality Epistemological, practical rationality and fundamental rationality / identity. After discussing the three types of rationality of hope and analyzing their ratio, it is suggested that the phenomenon of hope, according to its futuristic emotional nature, is assessed more with the criterion of minimalistic rationality. So radical and maximal rationality. The final section of the paper deals with the ethics debate. But for the sake of observing the accuracy of the discussion, among the various issues, the ethical analysis focuses on three implicit hopes of hope: disappointment, dreams, and political exploitation of the hopeful. In addition, inspired by Gabriel Marcel's breakdown, hopes of hoping for a breakdown and practical benefits in the ethics of hope are mentioned.